In Selected Opinion

By Dr. Wagdy Loza, C. Psych

This article will provide an outline of the discrimination and suffering that the Copts of Egypt have been enduring since the Arabs invaded their land around 641 A.D. to the current time.

 l. The estimated current percentage of Copts living in Egypt

In 2012 the Egyptian government’s reported that the number of Copts in Egypt is 5.7 million. However, in December 2018 Pope Tawadrous stated that there is approximately 15 million Copts living in Egypt and this represent approximately 15% of the Egyptian population 1 Several reports concur with the church’s figures (Wikipedia 2., Eibner 3, p.5, Bachner 4, Fox News 5  ) The reason for this discrepancy appears to be related to Muslim extremists’ pressures on the government 6, p. 341.

ll. Historical Suffering of The Copts Following the Arab Invasion of Egypt

a) Butler (7, p. 320, 324, 256, 361, 362) reported that according to John of Nikiû (680-690) Egypt was a stronghold of the Coptic faith. Instructions were given to the Muslim troops that all Christian prisoners who chose to adopt Islam should be set at liberty and received as brothers. Those who refused were to be slaughtered. A great number of the captives converted to Islam. History documents “the brutal treatment of the Egyptians by the Arabs”. The Copts were forced to carry fodder for the cattle of the Arabs, to provide the Arabs with milk, honey, fruit, vegetables, and other things in great abundance over and above the ordinary rations. The payment of tribute and taxes constituted them a protected people (ahl adhdhimmah).

b) Al-Araby 8 reported that between the years 637A.D. – 644A.D. Omar the second Caliph, (after the death of the prophet Mohamed), authorized a number of raids to subjugate many of the neighboring countries. In Egypt, the Copts and Jews were forced to accept and sign a document agreeing to the long list of humiliating and degrading rules included in what is known as “the Pact of Omar” consisting of the following regulations and prohibitions: “We shall not build new monasteries, churches, convents or monks’ cells in our cities or in Muslim neighborhoods. Should any of these falls into ruins or disrepair, we shall not repair, by day or night, those in our own neighborhoods or those situated in the quarters of the Muslims. We shall keep our gates wide open for passersby and travelers. All Muslims that pass our way are to be given board and lodging for as many as three days. We shall not hide any spy from the Muslims or give them sanctuary in our churches or shelter them in our homes. We shall not proclaim our religion publicly nor attempt to convert anyone to it. We shall not forbid any of our kin from entering Islam if they desire to do so. We shall show respect toward Muslims. If they wish to sit, we shall rise from our seats. We shall not seek to resemble Muslims by imitating any of their garments, turbans, footwear or parting of the hair. We shall not imitate their way of speech. We shall not mount on saddles, gird ourselves with swords, bear any kind of arms, or conceal weapons on our bodies. We shall not engrave Arabic inscriptions on our seals. We shall not sell fermented drinks. We identify ourselves as non-Muslims by clipping the fronts of our heads. We shall always dress in the same manner wherever we go, and we shall bind the “zunar”, identifying us as non-Muslims, around our waists. We shall not display our crosses or our books on the roads or in the markets of the Muslims. We shall use only clappers very softly in our churches. We shall not raise our voices in mourning when following our dead. We shall not shine lights on any of the roads of the Muslims or in their markets. We shall not bury our dead near the Muslims. We shall not take slaves who have been allotted to Muslims. We shall not build houses of taller elevation than the houses of Muslims. We accept these conditions for ourselves and for the people of our community, and in return we shall receive safe-conduct. If non-Muslims in any way violated the regulations under the Pact of Omar, “for which we ourselves stand surety, we forfeit our covenant [dhimma] status and shall become liable to the penalties for contumacy and sedition.”

c) Two more conditions were forced on the Copts as early as the tenth century. 9, p448-450.

1. The binding conditions were these: a) the Koran is not to be reviled, nor copies of it burned; b) the Prophet must not be called a liar nor spoken of contemptuously; c) the religion of Islam is not to be condemned, nor must any attempt be made to refute it; d) no Christian may marry a Muslim woman; e) no attempt may be made to seduce a Muslim from his religion, nor to injure him in purse or person; and f) the enemies of Islam must not be assisted, nor the rich men among them entertained.

The contingent conditions were as follows: a) subjects must wear a distinctive garment with a girdle fastened round the waist; b) their houses must not be built higher than those of the Muslims; c) the sound of their bells must not be forced on the ears of Muslims, nor their reading or chanting, nor their opinions on their peculiar tenets, whether Jewish or Christian; d) crosses must not be displayed, nor wine drunk in public, nor must swine be seen; e) the dead are to be mourned in private and to be buried in private; and f) subjects must ride only common horses or mules, not thoroughbreds Also, Ma`wardî says: `It is not lawful for subject people to build a new church or synagogue in the territory of Islam, and any such building must be demolished; but they may restore old churches or synagogues which have fallen into ruin.

Additional Negative Conditions Imposed on the Copts

In addition to the sever conditions imposed on Copts, the Arabs took many men, women, and children slaves and sent them to their native land in Arabia 10.

After Amr ibn Al Assi, (the conqueror of Egypt) several Muslim leaders followed on the same rules imposed by him which was offered to Copts, that is convert to Islam, be killed, or accept a second-class existence (dhimmitude) (tolerated minority) and pay “Jizya” with much humiliation. They demolished churches and looted whatever they could find in churches. The following are some examples. Starting with Abd al-ʿAzīz ibn Marwān (685-705), he ordered that all crosses in Egypt be broken and stopped the Coptic masses, and his son mandated Jizya on monks. El Walid abd el Malik (705) destroyed many churches and many Coptic religious services stopped. Qura bin Sherk (701-709) used to go to churches and order the Copts to stop their worship. He stole alabaster and other decorating articles from churches and put them in mosques. Attacks on convents in Egypt were often followed by mass rapes. Caliph Hakim Bi-Amr Allah (984-1021) ordered the demolition of Coptic churches and looting whatever they can find in them. He ordered the end of all Coptic religious feasts and celebrations and confiscated the churches and monasteries’ properties. He prohibited sounds of churches bells and took of the crosses from the top of the churches. He ordered the Copts to erase the signs of cross that was tattooed on the wrists. In 1011 he decreed that Copts should wear around their necks wooden crosses that were approximately a foot in length and weighed five pounds. He then ordered the Copts to choose between converting to Islam or leaving Egypt. He also, excavated the bones of the Copts from their graves and used them as a source of heat for public bath houses. Additionally, he gave orders to prohibit the use of the Coptic language in homes and in public places or face the consequences of getting his/her tongue cut out; “Under these circumstances a great many Christians became Muslims.” 10, (p, 57-61, 188-189), 11.  

Muslim rulers after Caliph Hakim Bi-Amr Allah followed his brutal treatment against the Copts. For examples in the year 1321 Sultan Mohamed bin Qalawon “destroyed 60 Coptic churches. and he decreed that it is permissible for any Muslim who sees a Christian wearing white colored hate or riding a horse to kill him. He obliged Christians to wear hates colored in blue and rode donkeys instead of horses as measures to humiliate them and they were prohibited from getting government jobs. Furthermore, they were forced to wear a wooden cross around their necks that weighed five pounds. Ibrahim12 cited more examples among them the Caliph Harun al-Rashid, who forced Christians to distinguish themselves by dress, to expel them from their positions, and to destroy their churches through the use of fatwas (Islamic legal judgment) by the imams.” Similarly, Saladin commanded that all crucifixes on Coptic church domes be destroyed, and that “whoever saw that the outside of a church was white, to cover it with black dirt”. Also, in 1354, well after the “mad caliph” Hakim was gone, churches were still under attack, including by Muslim mobs, who “demolished churches and they plundered the wealth of the churches they demolished. Also, According to Ibn Qayyim (1292-1350) it was “obligatory” to destroy or convert into a mosque “every church” both old and new that exists on lands that were taken by Muslims through force, for they “breed corruption.” Likewise, Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328) confirms that “the ulema (leaders) of the Muslims from all four schools of law—that if the imam destroys every church in lands taken by force, such as Egypt … this would not be deemed unjust of him,” Elsewhere he writes, “Wherever Muslims live and have mosques, it is impermissible for any sign of infidelity to be present, churches or otherwise”.  Another author reported that in 1169 Saladin’s time 5000 Copts were slaughtered and his brother slaughtered 3000 more Copts 13.

The suffering of the Copts continued unabated to much more recent time as demonstrated by the following restrictions on Church construction.

  • The Hamayonic decree of 1856

The Hamayouni Decree of 1856 mandated that the Ottoman Sultan must issue permits for any construction or maintenance of churches. After the end of Ottoman rule, only the king, and then the President of Egypt could issue these permits14

  • The Prohibiting “Conditions” on Church Construction of 1934

In 1934 the minister of interior, added the 10 prohibitive conditions, to the Hamayounic Decree, before granting a permission to build a church: among these conditions: a) Is the land on which the church is to be built empty or agricultural land, and does it belong to the person presenting the request?; b) What is the distance between the proposed church and surrounding mosques?; c) If the land is vacant, is it amid Christian or Muslim settlements?; d) If it is amid Muslims, do they have any objections to it?; e) Is there another church belonging to this denomination in the same town or village?; f) What is the distance between the nearest church belonging to this denomination and to the town in which the requested church is to be built?; g) What is the number of Christians in the area?; and h) If the land on which the church is to be built is close to Nile bridges or public utilities belonging to the Ministry of Irrigation, approval should be sought from the Ministry itself 15,16

To this day in 2019 the extremists have been successful in utilizing some of the above noted conditions, to prevent Copts from building new churches.

The frustration of the Copts was reflected in an article authored by Sidhom17 in which he stated that “since 1971 the Church has repeatedly applied for licence to build a new church but was never granted one; no reason was ever given by the authorities”. Furthermore, he reported on the abrupt interruption of officially licensed works of church building or restoration because some fanatic [Muslim] individual or group attacked the site. The local security officials more often than not looked on then ordered an indefinite stoppage of the work ‘for security reasons”

III. International and Domestic Concerns about the suffering of the Copts in Egypt

  1. Examples of the International Concerns:

1. The Congressional Human Rights Caucus of The United States House of Representatives heard a report devoted to the status of Egyptian Copts which said “Violent attacks on religious minorities, particularly Coptic Christians, by militant groups are an ongoing concern, especially in rural Upper Egypt, and “Egyptian government does not provide adequate protection for Christians.” 18.

2. In Canada, in May 2013 the report of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development indicated that “Egypt’s Copts have long faced discrimination vis-à-vis their Muslim counterparts, both legally and in practice”. “Copts have historically been under-represented in Egypt’s legislature and other positions of political power”. “legislation and administrative practices restricting freedom of religion and discriminatory practices continue to exist in Egypt”. “Egypt’s government must take steps to end both informal discrimination and any formal legal or administrative measures that discriminate against Copts or others on the basis of their religion, belief or status. “Copts continue to face discrimination in their day-to-day life, which denies them the human rights enjoyed by other Egyptian citizens” 19.)

  • Examples of the Domestic Concerns
  1. Ibrahim 20reported that over the last 30 years, more than one million Coptic Christians have left Egypt due to widespread attacks, church bombings, and kidnappings at the hands to radical Muslims.
  2. The Egyptian Muslim thinker Higgi21 highlighted the deteriorating conditions of the Copts in Egypt by making several statements starting with: “If I were a Copt”. The following are some of his statements: a) I would have split the skies of Egypt and the world with the sound of my voice decrying the oppressive climate in which Egypt’s Copts are living today; b) I would have let the world know of the inequity that has plagued the lives of many Copts since 1952 and kept them from occupying the political and senior administrative posts they deserve; c) I would have cried out against the gross injustice of making me pay taxes allocated by the State to Al-Azhar- the world’s preeminent Sunni Islamic institution – which does not admit Copts to any of its faculties; d) I would have vented my anger at being forced to pay taxes that are used to build tens of mosques when the Egyptian state has not paid a penny in the construction of a single church since 1952, with the exception of a donation made by President Nasser forty years ago towards the costs of building St. Mark’s Cathedral; e) I would have raised my voice against the absence of a single Copt from many legislative councils in Egypt today; f) I would have written one article after another about the way the mass media ignore my concerns and religious feasts as though Egypt’s Coptic population does not exist; g) I would have let the whole world know how Egypt’s Coptic history is not given its rightful due in Egyptian educational curricula and how the study of the Arabic language in schools is no longer the study of literary texts, poetry, novels, plays and short stories but of Islamic scripture which rightfully belongs in classes teaching religion to Muslim students; h) I would have made the world sit up and take notice of the difficulties Copts have in obtaining a license to build a church [out of their own funds]; and i) I would have brought to the attention of international public opinion the outrageous comments made by some Muslim writers about Copts.

IV. Examples of the Current Discrimination Against the Copts

Eibner 3 reported out of 480 political appointees to the Egyptian government posts, in Oct. 1991, only 5, or just over 1%, belong Christian community. No cabinet minister with a portfolio, state governor, ambassador, city mayor, provincial police chief or state college dean is a Christian”. Similarly, Ibrahim 22 reported that “In the last 50 years, no governor among Egypt’s 26 governors is Christian. Military schools and police academies virtually have stopped admitting Copts, making the army, security services, and police forces entirely composed of Muslims. The same process has been under way at Egypt’s universities and institutes of higher education – for the most part, the only Christian professors predate President Mubarak’s tenure. Since the mid-1960s, a half-million of Egypt’s best and brightest have packed up and moved to America, Canada, or Australia”. This situation has not improved as indicated by the Rizk (6, p. 332) He reported that the country (Egypt) eliminated Copts from most of the political positions and high positions such as governors of states and from being deans of universities and other leadership position. They have also eliminated Copts from leadership positions in cultural, arts, and sports. In the same vein, Ibrahim 23 wrote in 2005 that “Since Nasser’s 1952 coup, Copts have been largely excluded from the top echelons of political and administrative bodies. Only one Christian has since been appointed provincial governor, and that was for a brief period of two years in the remote governorate of North Sinai. Not one has since held a key cabinet portfolio; not one has even been appointed mayor of a city or town. Currently, Copts are sorely underrepresented in parliament, occupying only seven of 454 seats. They are also underrepresented in academia, especially state universities; despite the vast numbers of qualified and respected Coptic scholars, not one has been appointed rector of a university or dean of a college”. Things have not changed much since 2005 as reports24 indicates that in 2012 that Egypt’s new parliament has 498 seats, with only six are Copts as members, though Copts make up at the very least 10% of the population, and so should have approximately 50 seats. The trend of discriminating against Copts from 1984-2000 is documented. The elected or appointed Copts to the parliament was 5 Copts out of 454 members. In his time there were no chairman of a university, and higher government positions, not state governor, ambassador, city mayor, provincial police chief or state college dean is a Christian (3 (p.17),25,13.  More recently Ibrahim 26 reported that the Egyptian Olympic Mission to Brazil in 2016 was completely devoid of Copts, and the same applies to the Egyptian national team at the 2018 World Cup in Russia. Not a single Copt can be found on either the main team or the reserve. There are currently (2019) 540 players in the top-flight soccer clubs in Egypt, and that number includes only one Coptic footballer.

Similarly, Basta 27 summarized the suffering of the Copts as follows “Christians continue to be denied leadership positions in the Government agencies, diplomatic core, the military, Universities, and Colleges”. “And the fanatic extremists continue to kill the Christians in Egypt, destroy their homes, rape their women, enslave their children and tell them that they are infidels, unclean, sons of pigs and undesirables while they watch their Churches demolished”. Also, Khaled Montaser discussed how discrimination against Coptic Christians is widespread and banning them from entering certain medical professions became become the norm — one of many that discriminates against Copts 28  Situations have been getting worse for the Copts, to the extent that the Copts were painfully joking when in April 21, 1991 President Mubarak officially decreed that “the Coptic church is approved to renew its toilet 3, p.28. Also, Many Christian find that when they go to vote their names are missing from the electoral roll. Another example, the Egyptian Rose el-Youssef Magazine reported that a professor in an Egyptian university “kicked-out” two students out of his classes because they are Christians. Also, Salafi Muslim students published on the university social media fatwas prohibiting Muslims from greeting their fellow Copts on Easter time29. Salama 30 reported that there is one church for 8000 Copts.

Explanations for the Recent Discrimination and suffering of the Copts: Some Examples

  1. Essa31 opined that the main reason for discrimination, extremism/terrorism against the Copts is the Wahhabi non- compromising ideology of the Muslim religion. They think about how to destroy infidels or convert them to Islam or humiliate Christians or Jews.
  2. Rizk 6, p.97 sited the following opinions as the reasons behind the extremism against the Egyptian Copt: a) El-Bana the originator of the Muslim Brotherhood (MBH) which started his mission in 1928 issued a fatwa indicating that non-Muslims should be prohibited from occupying leadership positions in the government. b). In 1997, the Muslim Brotherhood leader opined in that Egypt Christians must pay jizya and they must not join the army services; c) The deputy to the leader of Muslim Brotherhood said it is not possible for Copts to form a political organization, and the Brothers will propose new constitution whereby it will be forbidden for non-Muslims to take higher positions in the government or in the army and that Copts will be subject to the Islamic laws (P. 99); d) A Muslim Brotherhood extremist in his efforts to entice more violence against the Copts claimed that there are weapons concealed in the churches waiting to be used against Muslims. (P.116); e) A Muslim extremist declared that congratulating Copts on their religious festivities is against Islamic religion (P. 144); f) Another Muslim extremist declared that no Muslim should be sentenced to death if he kills an infidel (meaning Copt) (P. 145); he also said: it is forbidden to build new church in the land of Muslims and that Jews and Copts must be fought until they convert to Islam or pay jizya, also Muslims should not greet non-Muslims. (P. 146); and 7) In one of the Egyptian towns, it was forbidden for Copts to pray so that they would not offend the feelings of their fellow Muslims (P. 203).
  3. Ibrahim 12 sited Dar AL-IFTA’s an Al Azhar affiliated institution in August 2009 which declared that church is “worse than bars and brothels” and “houses of torment and fire”. Also, likened the building of a church to “a nightclub, a gambling casino, or building a barn for rearing pigs, cats or dogs.”  In addition, “in July 2012, a prominent figure in Egypt’s Salafi movement, issued a fatwa forbidding Muslim taxi-drivers and bus-drivers from transporting Coptic Christian priests to their churches, which he depicted as “more forbidden than taking someone to the liquor bars.”
  4.  Eibner 3, p. 22 cited several sheiks and organizations which engage in hate mongering and entice violence against Christians. For example, in the summer of 1981 the spiritual leader of Jihad organization, issued fatwa against Christians who financially support the church. Also, Clark 32 sited a quote from Salafist website saying that “Muslims are superior to Egypt’s Coptic Christians because “Being a Muslim girl whose role models are the wives of the Prophet, who were required to wear the hijab, is better than being a Christian girl, whose role models are whores” and “Being a Muslim who fights to defend his honor and his faith is better than being a Christian who steals, rapes, and kills children.” Also, Al-Azhar published a pamphlet declaring the Bible a corrupted document and Christianity a pagan religion.” 33.  In addition, a popular cleric called Copts “Crusaders”, insisting that they do not deserve equal rights with Muslims in Egypt; and a representative of the Salafis said that the Copts must either convert to Islam, pay jizya and assume inferior status, or die 34.
  5. Bishara 35 reported that an extremist Sheik gave fatwa that Christians will not be admitted to heaven and on a TV show dated 07/01/2017 stated that “of course the blood of the Muslim is superior. This is not open to debate.” He also stated that “a Muslim must not be killed on account of a kafir (infidel). “This is because their blood is not equal. The blood of the Muslim is superior” 36 Another Salafi spokesman stated that Muslims, according to Islam, are forbidden to offer greetings or congratulations to Copts on any Christian holiday28
  6. Ibrahim 37 quoted another extremist saying, “Destroying churches is permissible—as long as the destruction does not bring harm to Muslims”. Also, the secretary-general of the Islamic Jihad asserted that “it is permissible to kill some Christians today,” justifying it by adding “Those who came out with weapons, their blood is allowed for us (to spill), as a fighter is not considered dhimmi38 . Another extremist, a jurist of Islamic law said that all Christian churches in Cairo must be demolished 39. Some Islamic clerics warned Muslims to refrain from any form of participation in Christian celebrations and condemned Muslims who offer their best wishes to their Christian neighbors during Christmas40.

VI. Violence Committed Against Copts from 1947 to 2019
This list is not at all comprehensive but shows most of the major attacks.

1947-2009 2010 –2012 2013-2015 2016-2019-
Murdered 207 [1] 81[2] 78 [3] 164
Injured 199[4] 374 105[5] 74
Attacks/beatings 38 [6] 10 71 26[7]
Threat to harm 0 5 5 1
Attacks homes/businesses 369[8] 7 15[9] 31
Plotting attacks 1 3
Attacks on churches 50 18 128 10
Attempting Attacks/church 3
Kidnapping 5 4 104 37
Preventing worshipers 2 1
Killing priests 13 3 2 2
Threat to kill persist 2 2
Attacks/Beating persists 2 3 2 1
Enticing to kill/harm 2
Objecting church construction/renovation 2 1 3
Sentenced for converting to Christianity 8
[1] four incidents with unspecified number of victims
[2] one incident with unspecified number of victims
[3] one incident with unspecified number of victims
[4] five incidents with unspecified number of victims
[5] one incident with unspecified number of victims
[6] five incidents with unspecified number of victims
[7] two incidents with unspecified number of victims
[8] 18 incidents with unspecified number of victims
[9] one incident with unspecified number of victims


  1. References for the incidents included in the list of Violence Committed Against Copts from 1947 to 2019 are included in the references section.
  2. During President Nasser time no Copts was a member of the revolutionary free officers. He dismissed Copts from political life, higher government positions and reduced the elected Copts to the parliament to between 0 to 3% from year 1957 to 1964 25
  3. President Sadat said that within 10 years he will convert Copts to Islam or to shoe shining and beggars. He forced the Pope to go to a monastery & ordered the incarceration of 8 bishops, 24 priests and other high-ranking Copts and changed the constitution to state that the Islamic Sharia law is the principle source for all laws11.
  4. In 2012, report indicated that the last five years there were at least 550 such cases of Copts abducted, tortured, raped, forced to convert to Islam, and/or enslaved. 41.
  5. Between the months of October 2016 – March 2017 at least 355 families have fled Arish in the Sinai 42


The Copts have suffered since the Arabs invasion of Egypt around 641 A.D.  This continues, to the time of writing this article.  Unless the Egyptian government aggressively deal with the Muslim Extremist ideologies, the suffering of the Copts living in Egypt will continue. These ideologies cannot be defeated either by military or by law and order means alone. Fortunately, a few Muslims intellectuals in Egypt advocate and call for equality of Copts living in Egypt with their Muslim citizens. President El-SISI has been vocal and against the prevalence of Muslim extremists’ ideologies and doing what he can. Copts pray for his success.


  1. Christian Dogma (18/11/2019). Ma howa a’dded el-Aqbat misr alyoum wama howa sir eltahafouz ala addedihom elfiely? What is the number of Copts today and why their actual number is kept secret. (
  2. Wikipedia,
  3. Eibner, J. (1993). Christians in Egypt: Church under siege, Institute for religious minorities in the Islamic world, P.5.
  4. Bachner, W. (2012). The Plight of Egypt’s Coptic Christians, The Inquisitr, March 29, 2012. Retrieved [20-07- 2017], from
  5. Fox News (22-06-2016). Retrieved [22-07-2016], from
  6. Rizk, H. (2017). Kiryalison, FI Mahabat al-Aqbat, For the love of the Copts. El Kitab El Zahabi. The Golden Book, Rose El Youssef, Cairo, Egypt
  7. Butler A. J. (1978). The Arab conquest of Egypt and the last thirty years of the Roman dominion. Oxford University Press. Second edition, 1st published in 1902, P. 256, 361, 362, 363, 320, 324.
  8. Al-Araby, A. (n.d). Islam Review, On the Road To The New World: Examining Islam’s Expansionist History Islam review:
  9. Butler A. J. (1978). The Arab conquest of Egypt and the last thirty years of the Roman dominion. Oxford University Press. Second edition, 1st published in 1902, (P.448-450)
  10. El-Maqari, A. (2013), El-Kanais El-Sharqia Wa Awtanha, The Eastern churches and their countries, Part II, P. 188-189, the Coptic church of Egypt.
  11. Dawoud, A (n.d.). El Qadia El Qebtia, El Khat El-Hamayoni, The Coptic Issue. The Hanyonic decree. Retrieved [11-09-2018], from
  12. Ibrahim, R. (2013a) The Fate of Egypt’s Coptic Christians: Part One With Raymond Ibrahim. The Inquisitr. Retrieved [20/05/2013], from
  13. Kamal, K (2017). Qatel 3000 kibti fi yoom wahed wa el katel hoa salah eldin wakawarth aukhra. The murder of 3000 Copts in one day and the killer is Saladin and other disasters. Retrieved [30-07-2017], from
  14. Hamayouni Decree (n.d). Wikipedia. Retrieved [2019-03-10], from

  1. El-Shrooq (2011). Shroot Mohamed El-Ezzaby Pasha. Conditions of Mohamed El-Ezzaby Pasha. Retrieved [11-09-2018], from,
  2. Fastenrath, C and Kazanjian, C. (2008) “Important Factors for Church Building in Egypt,” Arab-West Report Paper 4 Retrieved [11-09-2018], from

  1. Sidhom, Y. (2017). Law for Building and Restoring Churches: Trouble in Sohag. Watani (news paper, Egypt)–April 2, 2017.
  2. Remarks by Commissioner Elizabeth Prodromou Briefing on “Religious Freedom in Egypt” Before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus of The United States House of Representatives (16/11/2005). Retrieved [20/01/2010], from (
  3. Securing The Human Rights Of Coptic Christians In Egypt After The Arab Spring: A View From Canada’s Parliament Report of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development Subcommittee on International Human Rights (May, 2013).Retrieved [25/02/2019], from (
  4. Ibrahim, R. (2019a). Radical Islam’s Existential Threat to Christianity Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Retrieved [25/05/2019], from
  5. Higgi, T. (2011). Halqa Khasa a’n wada’ el-aqbat fi misre monz aam 2011. Special program about the condition of Copts since 2011 with Dr. Tariq Higgi retrieved [05/10/2012], from

22.Ibrahim, Y (2006). Egypt’s Copts Speak Up. NY, the Sun, Retrieved [26/04/2006],

23 Ibrahim, S.E (2005). Christians Oppressed, Washington News Review. Retrieved [2006/12/10], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2012a). Muslim Persecution of Christians: February 2012. Retrieved [20/05/2012], from (
  2. Kelada, M. (2008). Copts between past, present and future. ILAF,
  3. Ibrahim, R (2019b). Police Urinated on and Cursed Him for Being Christian”: Muslim Persecution of Christians, Retrieved [01/12/2019] from)
  4. Basta, L. (2017). When-Sisi-meets-Trump. Coptic Solidarity. Retrieved [25/05/2017], from
  5. Ibrahim. R. (2015a). U.S. State Dept. Bars Christians from Testifying about Persecution: Muslim Persecution of Christians, May 2015. Retrieved [22/06/2017], from
  6. Rose el-Youssef Magazine (17/05/2006). Tolab Fi Handasah Ain Shams Yashloon Fitna Taefia Electronically. Students of Engineering Department of Ain-Shams University initiate a religious strife electronically. Rose el-Youssef. Egyptian Magazine.
  7. Salama, V. (2006). Kanisa Waheda lthmaniah Aqbat. One Church for Eight Thousand Copts, Watani, Egyptian magazine,
  8. Essa, I (2017). La she’a ye’mel al erhab ela alsalafia alwahabiah. Nothing makes terrorism but the Salafism Wahhabism. EL-Maqal Egyptian newspaper, 26/03/2017, P. 1:
  9. Clark, K. J. (2013) The Most Persecuted Religion in the World. Retrieved [24/08/2016], from
  10. Khashan, H (Fall 2014). Arab Uprisings May Doom Middle East Christians, Middle East Quarterly Retrieved [04/01/2015], From
  11. Ibrahim, R (2011a). Muslim Persecution of Christians. Retrieved [15/07/2011], from
  12. Bishara, R. (2016). Natafiq with Sheek Mohamed Hassan: El-Misehieen Ln Yadkholoo El-Gana. We Agree with Sheek Mohamed Hassan: The Christians will not be admitted to Heaven. Retrieved [23/05/2016], from
  13. Ibrahim, R (2019b). Islamic Apologias: Straining at Gnats while Swallowing Camels,
  14. Ibrahim, R. (2015b) Jihad on Churches: Muslim Persecution of Christians, March 2015. Retrieved [10/07/2015], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2013b). Muslim Persecution of Christians. Retrieved [15/08/2013], from
  2. Ibrahim, R. (2015i). Whoever Disbelieves, Strike Off His Head’: Muslim Persecution of Christians, February 2015, 05/13/2015. Retrieved [15/08/2013], from
  3. Ibrahim, R. (2015c) Christmas Slaughter: Muslim Persecution of Christians, December 2014. Retrieved [30/02/2015], from Https://Www.Raymondibrahim.Com/2015/02/01/Christmas-Slaughter-Muslim-Persecution-Of-Christians-December-2014/

References for column 2 (1947-2019) of Table 1

References sited earlier in the reference list: 3 (P 27-31; P.18, P. 21, 22 & 25), 11, & 25.

  1. Ibrahim, R (2012f). Muslim Persecution of Christians Retrieved [13/09/2012], from.
  2. Coptic Solidarity (2017/03/29). Catalog: recent incidents of persecution and discrimination against Egypt’s copts
  3. Mathews, H (2013). Christian Holocaust: List of Atrocities Against Coptic Christians Since 1972. Christian Persecution. Retrieved [09/10/2013], from

44 Cook, S. (2012). The Struggle for Egypt: From Nasser to Tahrir Square. New York.  Oxford University Press.

  1. El Reheem, A, A. (2015). El Sadat and Muslim brotherhood: a story that must be told (el sadat wa el ekhwan el kisaa alati yagib an tarwa), el Bawaba newspaper, Egypt, 2015 July, 26, P. 1).
  2. Hamed, W. (2018-11-04). El-Masry El-Yoom. Its orientation: Salafi.
  3. Boles, D. (30/10/2012). Anwar Al-Sadat, the first Islamist ruler in Egypt’s modern history. On Coptic nationalism. Retrieved [05/04/2013], from

  1. Andrawis, G (2016). Hasr El-Hawades El-Mommanhaga ded El-Akbat khilal sharheen. Account of the incidents against the Copts during two months,

  1. Christian Dogma (17/10/2017) El. Khartia di A’liha 546 hadeth qatle wa zabh wa tafgeer lilmisihieen fi misr min Yolyo 2012 el September 2017.Mapping out 546 reported sectarian attacks against Egypt’s Coptic Christians throughout the entire country from 2012 to 2017.
  2. Ahl el-Quraan (2010). Qaima el ahdath ded el aqbat bi misr khilal 40 a’mn. A list of incidents against Copts during 40 year. Retrieved [05/06/2017] from

  1. Romani, M. (31/05/2017). Hawadeth Qatle El Aqbat fi 45 Sanah min A’ssr El Sadat wa el lista lisa maftouha. The incidents of killing Christians in 45 years and during Sadat’s time: And the list still open. Christian Dogma. Retrieved [05/06/2017], from,

References for column 3 the period from 2010 to 2012

4, 24, 32, 33, 43.

  1. Ibrahim, R (2013g). Muslim Persecution of Christians: January 2013. Retrieved [30/05/2014], from
  2. Brownlee, J. (2013). Violence Against Copts In Egypt, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved [20/12/2013], from
  3. 52. BBC Arabic News (22/08/2018). Tasalsul Zamani li-Abraz Ahdath el-ounf ded el-maseheen fi Misr. Chronical events for the most serious events of violence against Christians in Egypt. Retrieved [23/08/2018], from:
  4., (13/03/2010). Crowd of 3 thousand Muslims attack a Coptic Christian community, 25 injured. Retrieved [15/03/2010],from,-25-injured-17876.html
  5. Hendawi, H. (2011). Policeman shoots Christian dead in southern Egypt, Associated Press / retrieved [2011/02/13], from
  6. 5 Ibrahim, R. (2013d). Death to Churches Under Islam A Study of the Coptic Church, Retrieved [16/07/2/2013], from Middle East Forum
  7. Abdelmassih, M. (2011a). Muslims Attack Christian Village in Egypt — 1 Murdered, Homes Looted and Torched AINA News. Retrieved [2012-07-12], from
  8. barenakedislam (2011). Muslim persecution of Christians – September 2011. Retrieved [20/03/2012], from

58.Abdelmassih, M. (2011b). Thousands of Muslims Attack Christians in Egypt, 2 Killed, Homes and Stores Torched AINA News. Retrieved [2012-07-12], from

  1. Ibrahim, R (2011b). Muslim Persecution of Christians: November 2011. Retrieved [29/12/2011], from
  2. Abdelmassih, M (2011c). Coptic Christians Protect Monastery. Retrieved [2011-12-02], From Egyptian Army Assault, AINA News,
  3. Abdelmassih, M. (2011d). AINA News, Coptic Christian Student Murdered By Classmates for Wearing a Cross, AINA News. Retrieved [2012-07-12], from
  4. Abdelmassih, M (2012a). Egyptian Judiciary Accused of Collusion in Kidnapping and Forced Islamization of Christian Minors, AINA News. Retrieved [2012-07-12], from

63.Abdelmassih, M. (2012b), Over 3000 Muslims Attack Christian Homes and Shops in Egypt, 3 Injured; AINA News. Retrieved [2012-07-12], from

64 Abdelmassih, M. (2013a). Muslim Mob Torches Church in Egypt, AINA News. Retrieved [12/04/2013], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2012d). Muslim Persecution of Christians. Retrieved [29/05/2012], from
  2. Ibrahim, R. (2012e). Muslim-persecution-of-Christians,
  3. Abdelmassih, M (2012c). Egypt’s Christians Outraged by Court Ruling, AINA News. Retrieved [12/07/2012], from
  4. Findalis (2012). Muslim Persecution of Christians: August 2012. Radarsite. Retrieved [ 20/05/2013], from
  5. Ibrahim. R (2012g). Muslim Persecution of Christians. Retrieved [15/07/2012], from
  6. Abdelmassih, M. (2013b). Abducted Egyptian Christian Girl Possibly Smuggled to Libya, AINA News. Retrieved [05/04/2013], from
  7. Abdelmassih, M. (2012d). Muslim Egyptian Lawyer and His Sons Attempt to Demolish Church. AINA. Retrieved [20/10/2012], from
  8. Ibrahim, R (2012c). Muslim Persecution of Christians: October 2012

12/07/2012. Retrieved [2012/09/2012], from

  1. Ibrahim, R (2013e). Muslim Persecution of Christians: November 2012. Retrieved [2012/07/12] from
  2. Ibrahim, R. (2013c) Muslim Persecution of Christians: December 2012-. Retrieved [20/05/2014], from

References for column 4 the period from 2013 to 2015

4, 6 (P.120), 28, 33, 37, 38, 51, 55, and 56.

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2013h). Muslim Persecution of Christians: February 2013. Retrieved [15/08/2013], from
  2. Salama, H. (01/03/2013). Christian-Muslim tension flares in southern Egypt. Associated Press• March 1, 2013 Retrieved [15/08/2013], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2013i) Muslim Persecution of Christians: March, 2013- Retrieved [15/08/2013], from
  2. Ibrahim, R (2013f). Muslim Persecution of Christians: April, 2013. Retrieved [15/09/2013], from
  3. Beach, A. (2013). Coptic Christians under siege as mob attacks Cairo cathedral. Retrieved [15/08/2013], from
  4. Ibrahim, R (2013j). Muslim Persecution of Christians
  5. Ibrahim, R. (19/09/2013). Muslim Persecution of Christians. Retrieved [20/12/2013], from
  6. Kamel, K and Ali, I (2018). Hata la nansa graem el-ekhwan lliaqbat, Lest we forget the atrocities of Muslim brotherhood, El-Yom el-Sabee’ news paper, Egypt.
  7. Ibrahim, R. (2013k). Muslim Persecution of Christians.
  8. Barakat, Y. (27/02/2017) El dam el qibti el rekees. The cheep Coptic blood. El-Mogaz Egyptian news paper # 547.
  9. Ibrahim, R. (2013l). Muslim Persecution of Christians: October, 2013. Retrieved [25/10/2014], from
  10. Ibrahim, R. (2014a). U.S. “Chose to Stay Silent” on Muslim Persecution of Christians: November 2013. Retrieved [23/10/2014], from
  11. Ibrahim, R. (2014b). They Are Slaughtering Us Like Chickens’: Muslim Persecution of Christians, December 2013 Retrieved [10/02/2014], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2014c). U.S. Becomes Chief Enabler of Christian Persecution: Muslim Persecution of Christians, January 2014. Retrieved [22/08/2014], from
  2. Ibrahim, R. (2014d). Muslim Persecution of Christians, May 2014. Retrieved [05/01/2015], from
  3. Ibrahim, R. (2014e). Christians ‘Most Persecuted Group in World’ Muslim Persecution of Christians, February 2014. Retrieved [10/07/2014], from
  4. Ibrahim, R. (2014f). Obama Administration Suppresses Talk of Muslim Persecution of Christians: March 2014. Retrieved [20/08/2014], from
  5. Ibrahim, R. (2014g). Raped and Slaughtered: Muslim Persecution of Christians, April 2014. Retrieved [05/01/2015], from
  6. Ibrahim, R. (2014h) ISIS Snuffs Out Ancient Christianity: Muslim Persecution of Christians, June 2014. Retrieved [05/01/2015], from
  7. Ibrahim, R. (2014i). Christians and Churches Attacked in the West: Muslim Persecution of Christians, September 2014. Retrieved [2015/01/05], from
  8. Ibrahim, R. (2015e). Thousand Churches Destroyed in Nigeria: Muslim Persecution of Christians, October 2014. Retrieved [05/04/2015] from,
  9. Ibrahim, R. (2015f). Christians Burned Alive: Muslim Persecution of Christians, November 2014. Retrieved [20/05/2015], from

  1. Ibrahim, R (2015g). Winter Of Slaughter: Muslim Persecution Of Christians. Children “chopped in half” – but that’s only the tip of the iceberg. Retrieved [04/05/2015], from Https://www.Frontpagemag.Com/Fpm/250616/Winter-Slaughter-Muslim-Persecution-Christians-Raymond-Ibrahim
  2. Ibrahim, R. (2015h). Christians Pay Islam’s Price for Freedom: Muslim Persecution of Christians, January 2015. Retrieved [12/09/2015], from

  1. Andrawis, A (2015). Shuhada’ el Aqbat fi Libya. Martyrs of Copts in Libya. Encyclopedia, Coptic History. Retrieved [09/01/2016], from
  2. Black, I. (2015) The Guardian,
  3. Ibrahim, R. (2015d). Whoever Disbelieves, Strike Off His Head’: Muslim Persecution of Christians, February 2015. Retrieved [22/05/2016], from
  4. Ibrahim, R. (2015j). Christian Carnage and Western Indifference: Muslim Persecution of Christians, April 2015. Retrieved [10/07/2016], from

  1. Shoukry, N. (2015). Hekaia aqbat qadu eid el qiama fi el- ara’a. The story of Copts who spent the feast of resurrection in the open. Cots United. Retrieved [11/10/2015], from

  1. Ibrahim, R., (2015k). Christians Burn While Pope Worries about ‘Worldly’ Matters: Muslim Persecution of Christians, June 2015,
  2. Ibrahim, R. (2015l). Wake Up!”: Muslim Persecution of Christians, July 2015 –(
  3. Ibrahim, R. (2015n) We Did What We Learned: Attacking Christians”: Muslim Persecution of Christians, August 2015. Retrieved [12/12/2015], from
  4. Coptic United, a newspaper for all Egyptians (15/09/2015). Retrieved [12/12/2015], from
  5. Ibrahim, R. (2015m). More Christians Die, More Western Leaders Lie: Muslim Persecution of Christians: September 2015- (
  6. International Christian Concern (30/12/2015). Church in Upper Egypt Attacked While Under Construction,

References for column 5 the period from 2016 to 2019

110 Khalil, M., Jacoub, A., Guirguis, K. (n.d.). Rallies, Call for a peaceful demonstration in front of the White House, Coptic solidarity (;

  1. Ibrahim, R (18/04/2017). Spit on the Cross or Die!’ Muslim Persecution of Christians, January 2017
  2. World Watch Monitor (2017) Sinai: eighth El-Arish Copt killed in targeted attack (
  3. Abd el Hameed, M (2017). Daesh utlob qatl el ab wa el om min moganadeeh. Daesh request Killing the father and the mother from his recruits. (El -Maqal Newspaper, Egypt, P 6).
  4. Salem, A (26/03/2017). La taqool Fetna Taifia bl qatl ya igram wa baltaga wa tameez ded el-aqbat. Do not Say it is religious strife but say it is thuggery and criminal acts and discrimination against the Copts. El-Maqal, Egyptian newspaper, P3.
  5. Rossomando, John (2017) Palm Sunday Bombing Underscores Depth of Egypt’s Anti-Christian Bigotry, IPT News. Retrieved [14/08/2017], from

  1. Christian Dogma.Com Bil siwar el I’tida’ ala aqbat kom el-loofy lianahom saloo. Pictures of the assault on the Copts of Kom El-Loufy because they were praying. Retrieved [13/08/2017], from (17/04/2017).
  2. Sherwood, H. (2018). Christians in Egypt face unprecedented persecution. Retrieved [01/10/2019], from
  3. Sharaf El Deen, D (18/12/2018). Qabl Fwat El-Awan, Before it is too late. El. Masry El-Yoom. Egyptian news paper.

  1. Ibrahim, R (19/02/2019). We Will Displace You, O Worshipers of the Cross” Muslim Persecution of Christians, December 2018. Retrieved [15/08/2019], from
  2. Ibrahim, R (2019c). Recant Christianity or Face the Sword”: Muslim Persecution of Christians, November 2018. Retrieved [22/02/2019], from
  3. Persecution International Christian Concern (20/11/2018). Prosecution Reviews Case of St. George Intruder, 20/11/2018). Retrieved [09/01/2019], from
  4. Shukry, N (10/12/2018). koum al-raheb church closed, Copts attacked. Watani newspaper (
  5. Lukasik, C, (15/02//2019) Copts, Church, and State: Egypt’s Christians Frustrated with Lack of Protection. Retrieved [15/04/2019], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (12/03/2019). “Is It Really Human Beings Doing This?” Muslim Persecution of Christians, January 2019. Retrieved [07/08/2019], from
  2. Christian Dogma (2019a). Lil marra el-thalisa aqbat kom el-rahib bi-elmenya fi mawqif moheen. For the third time the Copts of Kom el-Raheb in a humiliating situation. Retrieved [10/02/2019], from
  3. Ibrahim, R. (03/10/2018). Amidst Slaughter of Christians, Sisi Boasts of Egypt’s Human Rights Record,,
  4. Evans, C. (2019). Extremists Single Out Coptic Christian Farmers, Persecution Org., International Christian Concern. Retrieved [25/04/2019], from
  5. Tauadros, I (2019). A’gel gidaan. Ela mn yahimoho el amer. Very Urgent: To whom it may concern. Retrieved [17-04-2019], from
  6. Barnabasfund (2019a). Islamic State-linked terrorists kidnap Egyptian Christian in Sinai. Retrieved [27/05/2019], from

130.Barnabasfund (2019b). Christians locked out of church building hold third funeral on streets of Egyptian village. Retrieved [20/03/2019], from

  1. Ibrahim, R. (2019d). “We Shall Come for Your Head Soon”: Muslim Persecution of Christians, February 2019. Retrieved [20/06/2019], from
  2. Christian dogma (2019b). Mohawalt zabh qubtia fi el-share’ bilgiza. The attempt to slaughter a Coptic girl in Giza, Cairo. Retrieved [26/05/2019], from
  3. video:
  4. Dana Glenn Smith, D. G. Egypt’s ongoing Abduction of Christian Coptic women -Featured Reminder. Retrieved on [2019/05/29] from

Egypt’s ongoing Abduction of Christian coptic women -Featured Reminder

  1. Christian Dogma (June 11, 2019). A’gel Biyan Rasmi min motraniyah Maghaga. Urgent: an official declaration from the Diocese of Maghaga. Retrieved [01/07/2019], from
  2. Journalist. Hareeq bi makhzen aqbat Kom el-Raheb b’aad waqia’ e’tradihom ala eghlaq el kanissa. Fires in the Storages belonging to Cop of Kom El-Rahib after their objections to the closer of their church, Copts United. Retrieved [2019/0720] from

[1] four incidents with unspecified number of victims
[2] one incident with unspecified number of victims
[3] one incident with unspecified number of victims
[4] five incidents with unspecified number of victims
[5] one incident with unspecified number of victims
[6] five incidents with unspecified number of victims
[7] two incidents with unspecified number of victims
[8] 18 incidents with unspecified number of victims
[9] one incident with unspecified number of victims

Photo Credit: Service is held on 3 November, 2018 to honour victims of an attack buses carrying Coptic Christians to a monastery in Egypt’s southern Minya province. Source: EPA

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